Guidelines for the establishment and management of sown pastures. Establishment Easily propagated from stem cuttings 0. Animals will damage stem cuttings and must be excluded until an extensive root system has developed. Can also be planted from seedlings or direct planted into the field from seed. Seedlings establish rapidly but weeds should be controlled during the first year of growth to ensure rapid establishment. As a shade and mulch tree in coffee plantations, E.
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Names[ edit ] Particularly in horticulture , the name coral tree is used as a collective term for these plants. Flame tree is another vernacular name, but may refer to a number of unrelated plants as well. Many species of Erythrina have bright red flowers, and this may be the origin of the common name. However, the growth of the branches can resemble the shape of sea coral rather than the color of Corallium rubrum specifically, and this is an alternative source for the name.
Mullumurikku is a widespread name in Kerala. Description and ecology[ edit ] Asian pied starling Gracupica contra feeding on Indian coral tree E. Not all species of Erythrina have bright red flowers; the Wiliwili E. This striking color polymorphism is also found in Erythrina lysistemon and Erythrina caffra. All species except the sterile hybrids E. The resilient buoyant seeds are often carried by the sea for large distances and are commonly called " sea beans ". Erythrina leaves are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the swift moth Endoclita damor and the woolly bears Hypercompe eridanus and Hypercompe icasia.
The mite Tydeus munsteri is a pest on the coastal coral tree E. Many birds visit the nectar -rich Erythrina flowers. In the Neotropics , these are usually larger hummingbirds , for example the swallow-tailed hummingbird Eupetomena macroura and the black-throated Anthracothorax nigricollis and green-breasted mangos A.
In Southeast Asia , the black drongo Dicrurus macrocercus which usually does not eat nectar in quantity has been observed feeding on E. Lorikeets such as the collared lory Phigys solitarius and the possibly extinct New Caledonian lorikeet Charmosyna diadema are known to consume or have consumed large amounts of Erythrina nectar.
Use by humans[ edit ] Some coral trees are used widely in the tropics and subtropics as street and park trees, especially in drier areas. In the Bengal region, they are used for the same purpose in Schumannianthus dichotoma plantations.
Olo, which averaged 18 feet 5. The coastal coral tree E. Known as thong lang in Thailand , the latter species is also one of the thong "trees" referred to in the name of Amphoe Chom Thong, Chiang Mai Province. In Vietnam , people use the leaves of E. The same motif is found in Tibetan Buddhism , where the man da ra ba growing in Sukhavati is identified as an Indian coral tree E.
Though as none of the trees is identified as an Erythrina here, the concept might not be as directly related to the Asian religions as some presume. Erythravine is tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid from Erythrina mulungu , studied for possible anxiolytic properties. The seeds of at least one-third of the species contain potent erythrina alkaloids , and some of these are used for medicinal and other purposes by indigenous peoples.
As food[ edit ] Root tubers of Erythrina species have been traditional food for aborigines of the Northern Territory of Australia.
Érythrine crête de coq