The clan claimed descent from the Suryavanshi Sisodia Rajput royal family of Udaipur. He was given deshmukhi rights of Pune, Supe, Chakan and Indapur for military expenses. Scholars disagree on his date of birth. Shahaji often changed his loyalty between the Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar, the Adilshah of Bijapur and the Mughals, but always kept his jagir fiefdom at Pune and his small army. His studies of the Hindu epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata , also influenced his lifelong defence of Hindu values.
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The clan claimed descent from the Suryavanshi Sisodia Rajput royal family of Udaipur. He was given deshmukhi rights of Pune, Supe, Chakan and Indapur for military expenses. Scholars disagree on his date of birth. Shahaji often changed his loyalty between the Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar, the Adilshah of Bijapur and the Mughals, but always kept his jagir fiefdom at Pune and his small army.
His studies of the Hindu epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata , also influenced his lifelong defence of Hindu values. Having made peace with the Mughals, ceding them six forts, he went to serve the Sultanate of Bijapur. He moved Shivaji and Jijabai from Shivneri to Pune and left them in the care of his jagir administrator, Dadoji Konddeo , who has been credited with overseeing the education and training of young Shivaji.
He was asked to hold and settle the area. He married Saibai from the prominent Nimbalkar family in During these developments, from — Shivaji paused in his conquests and quietly consolidated his gains.
Having ended his conflict with the Mughals and having a greater ability to respond, in Adilshah sent Afzal Khan , a veteran general, to arrest Shivaji.
After two months, Afzal Khan sent an envoy to Shivaji suggesting the two leaders meet in private outside the fort to parley. The arrangements had dictated that each come armed only with a sword, and attended by one follower. Shivaji, either suspecting Afzal Khan would arrest or attack him,   or secretly planning to attack himself,  wore armour beneath his clothes, concealed a bagh nakh metal "tiger claw" on his left arm, and had a dagger in his right hand.
The captured enemy, both officers and men, were set free and sent back to their homes with money, food and other gifts. Marathas were rewarded accordingly. At that time, Shivaji was encamped at Panhala fort with his forces. During the bombardment of Panhala, Siddi Jauhar purchased grenades from the British at Rajapur to increase his efficacy, and also hired some English artillerymen to bombard the fort, conspicuously flying a flag used by the English.
This perceived betrayal angered Shivaji, who in December would exact revenge by plundering the English factory at Rajapur and capturing four of the factors, imprisoning them until mid Baji Prabhu Deshpande was wounded but continued to fight until he heard the sound of cannon fire from Vishalgad,  signalling Shivaji had safely reached the fort, on the evening of 13 July Dhurandhar Until , Shivaji maintained peaceful relations with the Mughal Empire.
Shivaji offered his assistance to Aurangzeb , the Mughal viceroy of the Deccan and son of the Mughal emperor, in conquering Bijapur in return for formal recognition of his right to the Bijapuri forts and villages under his possession. Dissatisfied with the Mughal response, and receiving a better offer from Bijapur, he launched a raid into the Mughal Deccan. Shaista Khan, with his better—equipped and —provisioned army of 80, seized Pune. He also took the nearby fort of Chakan , besieging it for a month and a half before breaching the walls.
By mid, with the fortress at Purandar besieged and near capture, Shivaji was forced to come to terms with Jai Singh. Shivaji took offence and stormed out of court,  and was promptly placed under house arrest under the watch of Faulad Khan, Kotwal of Agra.
Orders came from the emperor to station Shivaji in Kabul , which Shivaji refused. Instead he asked for his forts to be returned and to serve the Mughals as a mansabdar; Aurangzeb rebutted that he must surrender his remaining forts before returning to Mughal service. Shivaji managed to escape from Agra, likely by bribing the guards, though the emperor was never able to ascertain how he escaped despite an investigation.
Sambhaji was also restored as a Mughal mansabdar with 5, horses. Sambhaji was also granted territory in Berar for revenue collection. In September , Shivaji sent an ambassador to Bombay, again seeking materiel, this time for the fight against Danda-Rajpuri. The English had misgivings of the advantages Shivaji would gain from this conquest, but also did not want to lose any chance of receiving compensation for his looting their factories at Rajapur.
The English sent Lieutenant Stephen Ustick to treat with Shivaji, but negotiations failed over the issue of the Rajapur indemnity. Numerous exchanges of envoys followed over the coming years, with some agreement as to the arms issues in , but Shivaji was never to pay the Rajapur indemnity before his death, and the factory there dissolved at the end of Anandrao Mohite became Hambirrao Mohite , the new sarnaubat commander-in-chief of the Maratha forces.
Raigad Fort was newly built by Hiroji Indulkar as a capital of nascent Maratha kingdom. A kingly title could address this and also prevent any challenges by other Maratha leaders, to whom he was technically equal.
Then he was invested by Gaga Bhatta with the sacred thread. Next day, Shivaji made atonement for the sins which he committed in his own lifetime.
After the ablution, Shivaji bowed before Jijabai and touched her feet. Nearly fifty thousand people gathered at Raigad for the ceremonies.
He also took the title of Haindava Dharmodhhaarak protector of the Hindu faith. The Marathas summoned Bengali Tantrik goswami Nischal Puri, who declared that the original coronation had been held under inauspicious stars, and a second coronation was needed. This second coronation on 24 September had a dual use, mollifying those who still believed that Shivaji was not qualified for the Vedic rites of his first coronation, by performing a less-contestable additional ceremony. In Shivaji invaded Karnataka with 30, cavalry and 40, infantry, backed by Golkonda artillery and funding.
Unable to curb this, Shivaji confined his son to Panhala in , only to have the prince escape with his wife and defect to the Mughals for a year. Sambhaji then returned home, unrepentant, and was again confined to Panhala.
Putalabai , the childless eldest of the surviving wives of Shivaji committed sati by jumping into his funeral pyre. Another surviving spouse, Sakwarbai, was not allowed to follow suit because she had a young daughter.
On 21 April , ten-year-old Rajaram was installed on the throne. However, Sambhaji took possession of Raigad Fort after killing the commander, and on 18 June acquired control of Raigad, and formally ascended the throne on 20 July. Soon after his death, in , Aurangzeb launched an offensive in the South to capture territories held by the Marathas: Bijapur and Golkonda.
He was successful in obliterating the Sultanates but could not subdue the Marathas after spending 27 years in the Deccan. Territories changed hands repeatedly between the Mughals and the Marathas; the conflict ended in defeat for the Mughals in After a brief power struggle over succession with his aunt Tarabai, Shahu ruled the Maratha Empire from to Early in his reign, he appointed Balaji Vishwanath and later his descendants, as Peshwas prime ministers of the Maratha Empire.
At its peak, the Maratha empire stretched from Tamil Nadu  in the south, to Peshawar modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in the north, and Bengal. The eight ministers in the council are as follows: 1 Prime Minister Mukhya Pradhan or Peshwa : The Prime Minister looked for the welfare of the State in general, to represent the king in his absence and all the charters and royal letters consists of his seal below the king.
The position of Prime Minister was highest in the council as it was closer to the king. Promotion of Marathi and Sanskrit In his court, Shivaji replaced Persian , the common courtly language in the region, with Marathi, and emphasised Hindu political and courtly traditions.
He named the Ashta Pradhan council of ministers according to Sanskrit nomenclature, with terms such as nyaayaadheesha, and senaapati, and commissioned the political treatise Raajya Vyavahaara Kosha. His Rajpurohit , Keshav Pandit , was himself a Sanskrit scholar and poet. While Hindus were relieved to practice their religion freely under a Hindu ruler, Shivaji not only allowed Muslims to practice without harassment, but supported their ministries with endowments.
He wrote: In strict justice, the Jizya is not at all lawful. If you imagine piety in oppressing and terrorising the Hindus, you ought to first levy the tax on Jai Singh I. But to oppress ants and flies is not at all valour nor spirit.
If you believe in Quran, God is the lord of all men and not just of Muslims only. Verily, Islam and Hinduism are terms of contrast. They are used by the true Divine Painter for blending the colours and filling in the outlines.
If it is a mosque, the call to prayer is chanted in remembrance of God. If it is a temple, the bells are rung in yearning for God alone.
Shivaji quickly raided Bardez in which three Portuguese Catholic priests and a few Christians were killed and stopped the forceful conversion of Hindus. Shivaji left the Christians untouched, saying "the Frankish Padrys are good men. His strategy rested on leveraging his ground forces, naval forces, and series of forts across his territory.
The Maval infantry served as the core of his ground forces reinforced with Telangi musketeers from Karnataka , supported by Maratha cavalry. His artillery was relatively underdeveloped and reliant on European suppliers, further inclining him to a very mobile form of warfare. He also rebuilt or repaired many forts in advantageous locations. The officers acted jointly and provided mutual checks and balance. Viegas was later to defect back to the Portuguese, taking sailors with him.
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