Arguments are attempts to persuade us — to influence our beliefs and actions — by giving us reasons to believe this or that. Critical Thinking: A Concise Guide will equip students with the concepts and techniques used in the identification, analysis and assessment of arguments. Through precise and accessible discussion, this book provides the tools to become a successful critical thinker, one who can act and believe in accordance with good reasons, and who can articulate and make explicit those reasons. This fourth edition has been revised and updated throughout, with a new introduction for each chapter and up-to-date topical examples. Particular revisions include: practical reasoning; understanding quantitative data, statistics, and the rhetoric used about them; scientific reasoning; the connection to formal logic and the logic of probability; conditionals; ambiguity; vagueness; slippery slope arguments; and arguments by analogy. The dynamic Routledge Critical Thinking companion website provides thoroughly updated resources for both instructors and students including new examples and case studies, flashcards, sample questions, practice questions and answers, student activities and a testbank of questions for use in the classroom.
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Barriers to critical thinking Introduction: Thinking is the powerful process that helps us make sense of whatever is going on in our lives. However, the thinking process does not come naturally as it has to be purposeful.
We choose to think about something and at other times we choose to ignore it. There are several types of thinking but the most important ones are creative and critical thinking. Creative thinking is what inspires new ideas and new thoughts about new things. On the other hand, critical thinking involves, analyzing, evaluating and reasoning in order to come up with an adequate understanding of a situation Maiorana In my life, I have come across several barriers to critical thinking which I have discussed below.
Discussion: Critical thinking is an important process that human beings have to undertake in everyday life. Every situation we encounter in life brings an opportunity for us to think critically. As a student, I have to think critically in class, at home and when among other students. One of the most common barriers to critical thinking is the lack of relevant and adequate background information Paul and Elder I have experienced this problem severally especially when faced with exams that I have not adequately prepared.
In such a situation, I do not have the information required to answer a question adequately. I therefore end up using a narrow thought process rather than thinking critically. In the end, it is impossible to come up with an adequate conclusion since arguments are based on reasoning without analysis.
Another common barrier to critical thinking is prejudice. Most people like to think that their point of view is always right Bassham Some authoritative leaders are commonly faced with this problem as they do not make decisions based on the information provided but on their own opinions.
In class, I have experienced a situation where group assignments are not completed effectively due to the lack of critical thinking skills for some group members. The group member compiling the assignment writes the paper according to their own opinion and leaves out the discussions made by the group. Critical thinking involves analysis of situation and making sound decisions from this analysis Paul and Elder However, when a person is blinded by their own point of view, it becomes impossible to complete this process.
Another barrier to critical thinking that mostly affects people in the modern world is peer pressure Samovar In school, there are situations where a person is faced with the decision on whether to indulge drugs or not.
I have seen some friends who follow the path of their peers as opposed to making independent decisions. In most of these cases, a person cannot think critically as there is so much pressure around them. Additionally, due to the influence of his or her peers, a person is unable to examine the consequences of indulging in drugs or any other vice. Students always put a lot of emphasis on the concept of friendship. Therefore, when someone you consider a friend tells you to do something, you accept without inhibitions.
In this perspective, the process of critical thinking is cut short and decisions are based on peer pressure. Another common barrier to critical thinking occurs when people accept whatever they are told without adequate considerations.
This is very common for people working under authority Bassham Some people just accept information from authority without question.
As seen from the above analysis, a critical thinker must analyze the situation and come up with an adequate decision. By accepting any information presented, the critical thinking process cannot be completed. Another barrier to critical thinking is the application of emotions and feelings in the decision making process Paul and Elder This is a common problem for people who are attracted to someone else or consider themselves as being in love. I have experienced this in some situations, where I am likely to accept the opinion of someone I like without making adequate considerations.
Most of the times, the decision I make based on these emotions is wrong as I did not think critically. Emotions often block out the concept of evaluating a situation and critically thinking before making a conclusion. In some cases, ignorance is also a barrier to critical thinking. When a person does not want to consider certain elements of a situation, it is simpler for them to just ignore such elements Samovar This leads to the failure of the critical thinking process.
Additionally, some people are opposed to change and this creates complications in their thinking process. I have realized that it is important for a person to consider all sides of a situation, even those that one dislikes before making a decision.
Conclusion: As seen from this analysis, critical thinking is an important part of life but most people abandon this process due to the influence of the barriers mentioned. I have experienced situations where I cannot think critically due to lack of information. Without enough research into a topic, it is impossible to think critically about the issue. Other barriers include peer pressure, prejudice stereotyping, superstition among others. It is important for a person to analyze and evaluate a situation before suing reasoning to come up with a viable conclusion.
Works Cited Bassham, Gregory. Boston: McGraw-Hill, Maiorana, Victor P. Paul, Richard, and Linda Elder. Dillon: Foundation for Critical Thinking, Samovar, Larry A. Oral Communication: Speaking Across Cultures. Los Angeles: Roxbury, You can place an order similar to this with us. Use the order calculator below and get ordering with accurateessays.
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Critical Thinking: A Students Introduction / Edition 5
Barriers to critical thinking Introduction: Thinking is the powerful process that helps us make sense of whatever is going on in our lives. However, the thinking process does not come naturally as it has to be purposeful. We choose to think about something and at other times we choose to ignore it. There are several types of thinking but the most important ones are creative and critical thinking.
Any Format For Kindle Critical Thinking: A Student's Introduction by Gregory Bassham