How to cite this article: H. Ibrahim, F. Sani, B. Danladi and A. Ahmadu,
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How to cite this article: H. Ibrahim, F. Sani, B. Danladi and A. Ahmadu, Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, It is usually a shrub about 6 m 20 ft high with twisted branches and orange-brown bark Dalziel, ; Keay et al.
It is widely spread in Tropical Africa and commonly found in the Savannah forest. The plant has been reported to have varying traditional medicinal uses Irvine, It has been shown to have antimicrobial Muanza et al.
In Northern Nigeria, the leaves and stem are used in the treatment of eye infection and sickle cell anaemia oral communication. Sickle anaemia is a genetic disease. In the search for alternative to Fagara zanthoxyloides in the treatment of sickle cell anaemia Sofowora, , Hymenocardia acida is one of the most commonly used plant for the management of this disease in Northern Nigeria. Fagara zanthoxyloides is not commonly found in Northern Nigeria.
There are few drugs e. This research aims at determining the chemical constituents and antisickling activity of the leaves of Hymenocardia acida. It was identified on the field using descriptions given in the monograph Dalziel, ; Keay et al. U , Zaria. The voucher specimen number given was identified by A.
The leaves of H. The dried leaves were powdered using mortar and pestle and sieved using sieve mesh size U, Zaria. Phytochemical screening: The leaves were tested for the presence of chemical constituents such as carbohydrates, tannins, resins, balsams, glycosides, terpenes and steroids Evans, ; Balbaa, ; Sofowora, Scheme I: Extraction of the leaves of Hymenocardia acida. Key: Pet. The extract was concentrated in vacuo and used to test for the antisickling activity.
The fractionation was carried out as given on scheme I Woo et al. Fractions B, 1, 2, 3 and C resulting from the ethanolic extract s were tested for antisickling activity. The residues were dissolved in water or their respective solvents used for fractionations.
Antisickling activity: The antisickling activity Reversal of sickled RBC was determined using standard methods Sofowora, ; Fasanmade; Olaniyi, RESULTS Phytochemical screening: The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides. The chemical test of the various fractions revealed the following compounds A-terpenes, steroids and alkaloids; B-carboxylic acid; 1-Saponins and flavonoids; 2-saponins; 3-saponins; C-flavonoids.
Antisickling activity: The leaves were found to possess antisickling activity. The activity was found to be dose dependent Table 1 - 4.
The RBC were observed to change from the sickled shape to normal biconcave cells and later observed to increase in size after 30 min Table 2 - 4. All the various fractions B, 1, 2, 3, C soluble in water were observed to reverse sickling. The ether soluble fraction causes deformation of the cells.
They were seen Table 1: Inhibition of sickling-leaves of H. The clusters of RBC observed with ethanol extract were not observed with the fractions. Many drugs given to patients in the management of sickle cell conditions in our hospitals do not have effect on the sickle cells.
The treatments are usually supportive with haematenics Sofowora, , analgesics and fluid infusion. Some plants have been discovered to have antisickling activity like the Fagara zanthoxyloides Sofowora, Therefore the discovery of other plants with antisickling activity will supplement it.
The study revealed that the leaves of H. Therefore carboxylic acids, flavonoids and saponins are responsible for the antisickling activity of the leaves of H. The fractions did not produce clusters of reversal sickled cells as with the ethanol extracts.
This shows the purification and isolation will enhance the antisickling activity of the constituents. Saponins have been shown to possess antisickling activity Evans, ; Moody et al. Zanthoxylol, a butyric acid derivative and 1-hydroxylbenznoic acid were isolated from Fagara zanthoxyloides which are responsible for the antisickling activity of this plant Sofowora, This research has shown that more than one constituent is responsible for the antisickling activity.
Isolation of anyone of them can be used to formulate a standard preparation. Scientific evidence has been provided for the use of this plant in the management of sickle cell anaemia. Further work needs to be done to isolate and characterize the various compounds responsible for the antisickling activity. Also, it could reverse sickled red blood cells.
The fractions containing saponins, flavonoids and carboxylic acid were found to be responsible for this activity. Therefore, from the above results; the plant Hymenocardia acida might be potential sources of antisickling agent for sickle cell patients. This justifies the use of plant in the management of sickle cell disease. Medicinal Plant Constituents. Dalziel, J.
Useful Plants of Tropical West Africa. Crown Agent for Overseas Government and Administration. London, pp: Evans, W. Treases and Evans Pharmacognosy. Fasanmade, A. Olaniyi, Effect of amethocacine on normal and sickled human red blood cells.
Irvine, F. Woody Plants of Ghana. Keay, R. Onochie and D. Standfield, Nigeria Tress. Moody, J. Ojo, O. Otade, A. Adeyemo, P. Olumese and O. Ogundipe,
Abstract The effect of methanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida leaves on diabetes and associated lipidemia were investigated on experimentally-induced diabetic rats. Keywords: Hymenocardia acida, Diabetes mellitus, Lipid profile, Glibenclamide, Alloxan monohydrate Introduction Diabetes mellitus DM is a multi-factorial disease characterised by hyperglycaemia and lipoprotein abnormalities Scoppola et al. Apart from the hyperglycaemia, several factors including dyslipidemia or hyperlipidemia are involved in the micro- and macrovascular complications associated with the disease; a major cause of morbidity and death Taskinen, Diabetic disease is increasing rapidly and vast amounts of resources are spent in all countries Verspohl,
Branchlets become rusty brown as the bark peels. The bole is short, often flattened and usually crooked. The branches form a fairly heavy, somewhat rounded crown. Bark smooth or flaky, pinkish-brown when fresh but becoming pale brown or grey later. Leaves thin, leathery, elliptic-oblong up to 8. Leaves usually pubescent when young with a dense mat of fine hairs and with golden glands beneath.
Hymenocardia acida Tul.