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History Edit Many different people have owned the Britannica. Information technology has become better and more electronic encyclopaedias such as Microsoft Encarta and Wikipedia have made people not want to buy encyclopaedias in print anymore. Since the early s, the company has also promoted spin-off reference works. Actually, one can say that the 10th edition was only an extension to the 9th edition, and the 12th and 13th editions were extensions to the 11th edition. The 15th edition was reorganised in , and the updated, current version is the 15th edition. First era Edit In its first years 1st—6th editions, — , the Britannica was controlled by the people who first wrote it, Colin Macfarquhar and Andrew Bell , and by their friends and relations, such as Thomas Bonar , George Gleig and Archibald Constable.

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Information technology has become better recently and more electronic encyclopedias such as Microsoft Encarta and Wikipedia have made people not want to buy encyclopedias in print anymore. Since the early s, the company has also promoted spin-off reference works. Actually, you can say that the 10th edition was only an extension to the 9th edition, and the 12th and 13th editions were extensions to the 11th edition.

The 15th edition was reorganised in , and the updated, current version is the 15th edition. In , the 15th edition had a third wish: to put together all that everyone knows.

The history of the Britannica can be divided into five main eras, or lengths of time. First era In its first years 1st—6th editions, — , the Britannica was controlled by the people who first wrote it, Colin Macfarquhar and Andrew Bell, and by their friends and relations, such as Thomas Bonar, George Gleig and Archibald Constable. It was written to replace the French Encyclopedie. Its logo , which is the floral emblem of Scotland , shows that the Britannica was a Scottish business.

The encyclopedia being created is one of the most famous events that happened in the time when Scotland started inventing many things, or the Age of Enlightenment. The Britannica started as three-book set in the 1st edition written by one young editor—William Smellie— Slowly, the Britannica changed, in the first era, to a book set written by many people. When the first era was almost over, the Britannica had many people helping to write it, all having different types of skills.

The encyclopedia managed to get so many people by inviting their friends to help. Although some of the people who helped write the Britannica helped because they were friends of the most important editors, many other people wanted to help the Britannica because it was becoming very successful. These people came from many other countries, and some of them were very famous for the things they wrote about.

An index of all the articles was written to add to the 7th edition of the encyclopedia, and they continued to make an index until The 9th edition is considered to be the Britannica most meant for students ever written. However, at the end of the 19th century, the 9th edition was already too old and the Britannica had many financial problems.

Third era U. The 11th edition is said by many people to be the best edition of the encyclopedia. Its owner, Horace Hooper, worked extremely hard to make the 11th edition perfect. When Hooper had financial problems, the Britannica was managed by Sears Roebuck for about 18 years —, — In , he started to continuously revise the encyclopedia often still done so today , in which every article is checked at least two times every ten years. This was a big difference from before, when the articles were not changed until they wrote a new edition, about every 25 years, with some articles used again without revising them.

He also quickly made some educational products which made the encyclopedia even more well known by everyone. In , William Benton managed the Britannica until his death in Benton also set up the Benton Foundation, which managed the Britannica until In , near the end of this era, the Britannica celebrated its year anniversary. The longest article pages is on the United States , and came from putting the articles on the individual states together.

The Outline is also intended to be a study guide, and to tell a student who wants to learn a topic in depth what articles to use. However, libraries say that very few people use it, and reviewers recommend the encyclopedias to not print it anymore. The index has 2, pages, which lists all the , topics written about in the Britannica,.

The Britannica uses the British spellings and not American spellings. For example, it uses colour not color , centre not center , and encyclopaedia not encyclopedia. However, this rule is not always followed, for example defense and not defence. The other spellings of the word is sometimes shown with a link, for example "Color: see Colour. Non-English letters are ignored and articles with numbers such as "War of " are arranged as if the number had been written out "War of Eighteen-twelve".

If the articles have the same names, articles about persons go first, then by places, then by things. People with the same names are arranged first alphabetically by country and then by their time. Similarly, places that have the same names are arranged by alphabet by the country they are in. Other Britannicas Printed There are a few smaller versions of the Britannica encyclopedias. Other books are My First Britannica, written for children who are six to twelve years old, and the Britannica Discovery Library, written for children who are three to six years old issued in to The whole DVD also includes other bonus tools including maps, videos, sound clips, animations and web links.

It also has study tools and a dictionary and thesaurus from Merriam-Webster. People need to pay to use the website.

Articles can be read online for free, but only the first few sentences can be seen. Beginning in early , the Britannica let people read the articles for free if they are linked to another website, since these links let the articles appear more often and easily in search engines. An idea to use a wiki -Britannica was announced on the June 3 , A lot of people will be involved, with the Britannica staff editing important parts. Other pages.

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Subscribe As the paperless future approaches, certain sorts of publications have inevitably moved into the all-digital realm faster than others. Most of us still prefer paper when it comes to beach novels, for instance, or the cherished volumes of our personal libraries. At the other extreme, scientific journals effectively went all-digital years ago, and thanks to GPS, maps and road atlases are quickly following. Last week saw another milestone: the symbolic funeral of paper encyclopedias, with the inevitable announcement that the Encyclopedia Britannica is ceasing print publication. Encyclopedias, along with other reference works, would seem particularly obvious candidates for digitization.

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Information technology has become better recently and more electronic encyclopedias such as Microsoft Encarta and Wikipedia have made people not want to buy encyclopedias in print anymore. Since the early s, the company has also promoted spin-off reference works. Actually, you can say that the 10th edition was only an extension to the 9th edition, and the 12th and 13th editions were extensions to the 11th edition. The 15th edition was reorganised in , and the updated, current version is the 15th edition.

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