Email: ude. Abstract Background Antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy have been hypothesised to have a neurodevelopmental basis, but this proposition has not been formally tested. Aims This study tests the hypothesis that individuals with cavum septum pellucidum CSP , a marker of limbic neural maldevelopment, will show higher levels of psychopathy and antisocial personality. Method Cavum septum pellucidum was assessed using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging in a community sample. Results Those with CSP had significantly higher levels of antisocial personality, psychopathy, arrests and convictions compared with controls. The pervasiveness of this association was indicated by the fact that those lacking a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, but who were charged or convicted for an offence, had a more extensive CSP than non-antisocial controls.
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Monte Buchsbaum Brain Abnormalities in Murderers Indicated by Positron Emission Tomography Adrian Raine, Monte Buchsbaum, and Lori LaCasse Murderers pleading not guilty by reason of insanity NGRI are thought to have brain dysfunction, but there have been no previous studies reporting direct measures of both cortical and subcortical brain functioning in this specific group.
It has long been suspected that generalized brain dysfunc- Clues do however exist with respect to the source of tion may predispose to violent behavior. Studies using brain dysfunction predisposing to violence. It has long electroencephalographic EEG , neurological, neuropsy- been thought that dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex may chological, and cognitive test techniques have repeatedly disrupt the regulation of aggression, and this notion has shown that violent offenders have poorer brain functioning been supported by neurological studies of patients with than normal controls Eichelman ; Eysenck and damage to the prefrontal cortex Damasio et al ; Gudjonsson ; Elliott ; Lewis et al ; Moffitt Weiger and Bear Received November 2, ; revised July 22, Raine et al ; not been tested using direct measures of callosal function- Methods ing.
The experimental group consisted of 41 amplitudes Barratt et al in press. Experimental animal subjects tried in the state of California 39 men, 2 women research together with neurological studies of patients with a mean age of Nevertheless, such research on animals and humans been found guilty were referred to obtain information for who have suffered brain insults, although of key impor- diminished capacity as an ameliorating circumstance in tance, is one step removed from the question of whether the sentencing phase of the trial.
Reasons for referral were severely violent offenders have brain dysfunction local- very diverse and included schizophrenia 6 cases , history ized to specific brain areas. Initial research in this ity 3 , and passive-aggressive or paranoid personality area has again implicated frontal brain regions in addition disorder 2. In 7 of the above cases, there were also to the temporal cortex Goyer et al ; Volkow and unusual circumstances surrounding the crime that addi- Tancredi These important initial studies support the tionally lead to the suspicion of some mental impairment.
All subjects were seriously violent behavior. Urine screens at in forensic psychiatry consists of those who commit the time of PET scanning were negative for every mur- murder and plead not guilty by reason of insanity derer referred for study. A control group was formed by matching previous brain imaging research on this important each murderer with a normal subject of the sanae sex and population to support or refute this notion.
In a prelim- age who had been tested using identical PET imaging inary report on a pilot sample of 22 such offenders procedures in the same laboratory. Six murderers all men compared to 22 normals, we provided some initial had been diagnosed as schizophrenic by psychiatrists.
In the present study the schizophrenics from a larger psychiatric sample tested sample size is extended to 41 murderers and 41 con- under identical procedures at the Brain Imaging Center at trois, and analysis of subcortical structures is now the University of California, Irvine Buchsbaum et al undertaken. To our knowledge, this is the largest The resulting 41 controls 39 men, 2 women had a sample of violent offenders assessed on functional brain mean age of Normal controls had been individuals have relatively localized brain dysfunction screened for health by physical exam, medical history, and in the prefrontal cortex, angular gyrus, amygdala, hip- a psychiatric interview.
No subject was taking any medi- pocampus, thalamus, and the corpus callosum, brain cation, had a history of psychiatric illness, in self or areas previously linked empirically or conceptually to first-degree relatives, or had current significant medical violence.
Conversely, no dysfunction is expected in illness. Subjects with a history of seizure disorder, head other brain areas caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, trauma, or substance abuse were excluded. Subjects par- midbrain, cerebellum , which have been implicated in ticipated under protocols and consent forms approved by other psychiatric conditions but which have not been the Human Subjects Committee of University of Califor- related to violence.
A degraded iii! The Figure 1. Split- cortical peel analysis. Ten minutes before the FDG injection, subjects were values averaged across slices for each hemisphere given practice trials on the CPT.
Thirty seconds before were extracted: superior frontal gyrus, middle frontal injection, the task was started so that initial task novelty gyms, and inferior frontal gyms see Figure 1. After 32 min of FDG uptake, Bilateral temporal superior, middle, inferior, and the subject was transferred to the adjacent PET scanner posterior , parietal postcentral, supramarginal, supe- room. An individually molded, thermosetting plastic head rior parietal lobule, and angular gyrus , and occipital holder was used to hold the head still during the scan.
Ten area 19, area 17 superior, area 17 inferior, and area slices at mm intervals parallel to the canthomeatal line 18 measures averaged across slices were also taken were obtained. Medial cortical and thomeatal line, usually cm and step downward at subcortical regions of interest were located on PET mm intervals. Surface cortical standard list see Figure 2. Pre- baum et al with the four lobes and four frontal measures extracted from each slice level anatomical subdivisions of each identified stereotac- given as a percentage of the distance from the tically Buchsbaum et al Stereotaxic neuroanatomical systems Fox and Mintum , error could place boxes in the caudate into the ventricle, and show greater reliability within subjects over time thereby diluting metabolic rates with cerebrospinal zero Bartlett et al Raine et al ; MFG F.
Transverse view of the 10 slices showing medial cortical prefrontal structures used in box analysis. Percentages refer to percent of head height above the canthomeatal line. Key to abbreviations: A. All tests of significance for planned 3. Murderers were identical to controls on. As indicated in the lower half o f Figure 4, 6. No other effects. Relative glucose metabolic rates for murders and Figure 4.
Relative glucose metabolic rates for murderers and controls in lateral prefrontal cortex above and medial prefrontal controls in the corpus callosum and parietal cortex. Murderers cortex below. Subcortical Regions activity, but relatively greater fight amygdala activity. Murderers had relatively greater right tha- lamic activity relative to controls. As indicated in Figure 5, T I murderers showed an abnormal asymmetry consisting of V relatively greater right thalamic activity.
TO assess specificity of subcortical find- og5 ings, groups were compared on glucose metabolic activity in the above structures, which have characterized other 0 0 mental disorders see Discussion , but which have not been theorized to relate to violent crime.
Means and SDs 0,85 "u are given in Table 1. Averaged means and SDs in paren- I v theses for the two groups controls and murderers respec- E o. Significant group X hemisphere interactions for rela-. Six of the greater right activity. A laterality coefficient indicated that murderers were left-handed. Raine et al ; cant, with the exception that left-handed murderers tended ; Mirsky and Siegel ; Weiger and Bear Results emotion, while the thalamus relays inputs from subcortical indicate therefore that greater rates of left-handedness in limbic structures to the prefrontal cortex Fuster ; the murderer group relative to controls cannot account for Mirsky and Siegel The hippocampal formation is reduced prefrontal activity and the abnormal amygdala thought to modulate aggression in cats through its action asymmetry.
The hippocampus, amygdala, and thalamus are non-head-injured murderers. Although analyses suggest also of critical importance to learning, memory, and that history of head injury cannot account for most attention; abnormalities in their functioning may relate to findings, the possibility that they account for group dif- deficits in forming conditioned emotional responses and ferences in the corpus callosum cannot be ruled out.
The amygdala additionally plays a role in the recognition of Discussion affective and socially significant stimuli Nishijo et al Key Findings , with destruction of the amygdala in animals result- The key findings from this preliminary study are that ing in a lack of fear Bear and in man in a reduction murderers pleading NGRI are characterized by a reduced in autonomic arousal Lee et al ; thus, abnormalities glucose metabolism in bilateral prefrontal cortex, the in the amygdala could be relevant to a fearles.
These data both confirm angular gyri is centrally involved in the integration of deficits in the prefrontal cortex from our earlier pilot sensory input and the formation of abstract concepts Kolb study, and also yield new findings.
These in turn provide and Wishaw , and in conjunction with its reciprocal both some general support for preexisting biological the- connections with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex Gold- ories of violence, and also suggest new perspectives for man-Rakic et al may contribute to the cognitive and understanding the type of brain dysfunction that may social information processing deficits observed in violent predispose to violence in this specific group of offenders.
Reductions in glucose metabolism in the left angular gyrus have been correlated with reduced verbal Biosocial Pathways from Brain Deficits to Violence ability Gur et al , while damage to the left angular A key question concerns how these multisite deficits can gyrus has been linked to deficits in reading anti arithmetic.
Regarding tional and occupational failure, which in turn predispose to prefrontal deficits, damage to this brain region can result crime and violence. In contrast to these posterior parietal areas, Brain Abnormalities in Murderers BIOLPSYCHIATRY ; which are dysfunctional in murderers, the more anterior for processing socially relevant information Brothers and parietal regions are involved in more basic somatic sen- Ring , and functions in parallel with the object sations and perceptions and are unaffected in murderers, recognition system of the hippocampus and the spatial indicating some specificity of dysfunction within the recognition system of the posterior parielLal cortex Kolb parietal region.
Disruption of such a system could in Although there have been speculations for many years part relate to the socially inappropriate behavior shown by that dysfunction to the corpus callosum may be a neuro- some violent individuals Cleckley and the mis- biological predisposition to violence e. Although white Dodge et al ; Nachshon and Rotenberg Callosal dysfunction and the in a direct causal fashion.
Instead, violent behavior prob- consequent lack of interhemispheric integration could ably involves disruption of a network of multiply interact- contribute to the abnormal asymmetries of function and ing brain mechanisms that predispose to violence in the reduced interhemispheric integration previously observed presence of other social, environmental, and psychological in antisocial and violent groups Hare and McPherson predispositions Eichelman ; Earls ; Lewis et al ; Flor-Henry et al ; Raine et al a.
We have Nevertheless, attempts to "network" findings from previously hypothesized that the reduced lateralization for the individual brain sites in this study must proceed processing linguistic information observed in violent cautiously, because there are brain mechanisms relevant to groups may arise from a reduction in the normal neuro- aggression e.
For this reason, this study cannot process that may in part be accounted for by dysfunction provide a complete account of the neurophysiology of of the corpus callosum Raine et al In Potential Confounds animals, rats who are stressed early in life are right hemisphere dominant for mice-killing Garbanati et al We do not believe that these results reflect merely chance Severing the corpus callosum in these rats leads to findings for five reasons.
First, the sample ,;ize 41 in each an increase in muricide Denenberg et al , indicating group is not small for PET research, and is substantially that the left hemisphere acts to inhibit the right hemisphere larger than other imaging studies of violent populations.
The fact Second, the strength of effects were not trivial, with a that both Sperry and Dimond commented mean effect size of 0. Third, areas were the inability to grasp long-term implications of a situation selected for analysis on the basis of prior l:heorizing, and in split-brain patients may also give pointers to the all but one of these produced significant effects.
Fourth, to inappropriate emotional expression of violent offenders help limit the possibility of type I errors, overall MANO- and their lack of long-term planning Cleckley VAs were conducted and two-tailed tests used throughout. Nevertheless, findings from animal research cannot be Fifth, brain areas that have not been theoretically linked to directly extrapolated to humans. Furthermore, callosal violence but that have been linked to other mental disor- dysfunction per se is unlikely to cause aggression; instead ders caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, raidbrain, cere- it may contribute to violence in those with concurrent bellum did not yield group differences; this double limbic and cortical abnormalities.
Nevertheless, it shoald be empha- poral lobe including the hippocampus may not be unre- sized that some effects were marginal e. Raine et al ; those regarding subcortical laterality effects and increased ously reported in psychiatric patients. For example, occipital functioning, which were not predicted a priori. Groups were Early et al ; Gur and Pearlson , cingulate gyrus matched on age, gender, and ethnicity. Analyses compar- Siegel et al , caudate Siegel et al , and ing left-handed with right-handed murderers, white versus cerebellum Volkow et al , these structures were nonwhite murderers, and murderers with and without a unaffected in murderers.
Similarly, there i,; a growing history of head injury do not support the view that the consensus that affective disorder involves dysfunction to greater rates of left handedness, head injury, and non- both frontal and temporal lobes Baxter et al ; whites in the murderer group account for overall murderer Cummings ; George et al In contrast, although versus control group differences.
This would be ics using the same methodology Buchsbaum et al , consistent with the notion that sheering of white nerve while depressives tend to have dysfunction lateralized to fibers during closed head injuries could contribute to the left hemisphere Baxter et al ; Bench et al ; damage to the corpus callosum McAllister In Drevets et al and to the left dorsolateral prefrontal addition, because we did not have more extensive neuro- region in particular Baxter et al ; Bench et al , logical and medical data to assess history of head injury, in contrast to the bilateral prefrontal findings for murder- we cannot definitively rule out prior head injury as a ers.
Furthermore, depressives have been reported to show possible contribution toward reduced brain activity in the additional involvement of the caudate nucleus Cummings murderers.
Obsessive-compulsives show mance on the CPT suggests not only that difference in higher, not lower, glucose levels in orbitofrontal cortex brain functioning is not easily accounted for by motiva- Baxter et al ; Benkelfat et al , while symptom tional or attentional deficits in the murderers, but also that intensity in this group is associated with higher not lower the significantly greater occipital activity visual areas 17 functioning in the hippocampus and thalamus McGuire et and 18 in murderers may possibly represent compensa- al With respect to substance abuse, acute cannabi- tion for the reduced activity in the prefrontal cortex, an nol administration affects cerebellar functioning Volkow area which is critical for the execution of this challenge et al , whereas murderers showed normal cerebellar task Buchsbaum et al Cognitive parity between activity.
Detoxified alcoholics show increased not de- groups cannot be claimed, because no IQ data were creased brain metabolism during detoxification, with available on the subjects.
Brain abnormalities in murderers indicated by positron emission tomography
Brain abnormalities in murderers indicated by positron emission tomography.