With enduring theoretical commitments to postcolonial critique, feminist thought, and critical race studies, she is concerned with challenging the Eurocentrism of urban studies and other canons of knowledge and forging theory and pedagogy attentive to historical difference. Building a shared terrain of scholarship across universities and movements, this network is concerned with advancing ideas, practices, programs, and policies of housing justice in Los Angeles as well as in other cities of the world. In collaboration with housing justice lawyers and movements in Los Angeles, she studies the role of municipal ordinances in such processes of banishment. Third, since , she has been actively involved in scholarship about sanctuary cities and cities of refuge. As evident in her recent article, The City in the Age of Trumpism: From Sanctuary to Abolition, she seeks to expand practices of welcome and hospitality in order to take account of the long histories of settler-colonialism, imperialism, and slavery.

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A dominant view around the notion of informality was that it is generally the poverty struck urban poor and the migrants Georg Simmel living in slums who fall into the category of informal Robert Perk. Scholars have also narrowed down the informal into categories like vendors, barbers, servants traders found in streets, back alleys etc Lloyd George Reynolds.

It is also important to point out in a country like India, the everyday lives of the people comes to a stop without the services of poor as maid, drivers etc. The arguments provided by Ananya Roy have debunked the stereotypical notion around informality and discussed the the issue from a new vantage point.

Ananya Roy dismisses the notion that informality is the by product of existence of urban poor in a society and emphasizes on the fact that different forces and their coordination to fulfil the interests of the power holders in the name of public domain is an important determinant of informality in the society. Her works argue that it is not only the urban poor who are the major proponent of informality but the State and the developers regulate the formal policies to reach their goals.

Is this not informality? In Kolkata, for example, many street vendors informal and illegal were evicted for the development of middle class housing Ananya Roy , however the street vendors are not given an alternative space to operate which paves way for congestion in well functioning markets as the vendors are motivated to take the advantages of urban agglomeration. It has been strongly asserted that deregulation of the existing laws result in large scale informal planning.

The proposed satellite city of Gurgaon is a prime example of it. The city of Gurgaon which was proposed as a satellite city to decongest Delhi is an example of how a whole city could be constructed informally. Gurgaon has come up on a land which was of no use and was outside the preview of any State legislation, it is through the manipulations of the laws that the entire city has come up.

The laws facilitated certain exemptions from taxes and duties, obligations and exceptions for Public Private Partnerships and Special Economic Zones which facilitated manipulation in land use, land acquisitions and title transfers.

Advantage was also taken of incidences like poor land record, competing claim for land etc. Gurgaon did not fall under any administrative body and any development needed the permission of the CM, thus all the bureaucratic processes were avoided. Another politics which exists is around situations when planning paves way for illegalities.

Decisions in Delhi have thrown light on how unaccountable and unexplained has the slum regularisation process been. Biased planning , shortage of housing due to inadequate estimations, long gestation periods for housing stock allocation are the potential reasons behind increased informality in the city of Delhi. The informal settlements have been give multiple nomenclatures like planned, legal, illegal, and legitimate without satisfactory justifications.

Thus the rationale behind regularizations stands questionable Bhan; This also brings us to the case of Guwahati where migration has led to the creation of illegal housing in the wetlands. Attempts have been made by the State to regularize the housing of the middle class and the upper middle class while the urban poor have become products of evictions thereby eroding the housing rights of the poor. Ananya Roy has commented upon this nature of informality that why is informality illegal for a certain section of the society and why do some enjoy the privilege of being supported by the State and being rendered as legal and formal Mahadevia, Mishra and Jodeph; Equity and social justice is a very distant idea when we talk about the informality practised by the poor as they are considered to be cancerous by the society and all their settlements are considered to be illegal.

Their settlements are very easy targets for eviction as they are not subjected to any mappings in the master plans. These settlements suffer most of the time as they are easily encroached upon whenever needed on the demands of the development projects. However, where is the justice and equity if rehabilitation makes accessibility for livelihood difficult.

There are many illegal high rises in India, are they subjected to eviction and encroachment. The Akshardham temple as argued by Ghertner; in Delhi had violated all the bye laws around building and this informal infrastructure is considered today as a monument of modernity. Thus legality and illegality is conditional and generally class and status based. People with power and money do survive easily and the powerless urban poor survive with difficulty and compromises. Planned illegalities. Economic and Political Weekly, 48 24 , Gururani, S.

Ecologies of urbanism in India: Metropolitan civility and sustainability, Mahadevia, D. Roy, A. Urban informality: Transnational perspectives from the middle East, latin America, and south Asia. Lexington Books pg Why India cannot plan its cities: Informality, insurgence and the idiom of urbanization. Planning theory, 8 1 ,


Planning and Informality in India by Avnika Nagar

Hijri Shamsi Calendar Urban informality Urban informality is a huge topic. I have included an annotated bibliography on sources below. And, since I have opened up this site to public access, I have moved direct links to articles to a password-protected page. Note that the law-makers, almost by definition, are the upper class in any city. Since the elite set the rules, they can declare when others break the rules.

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Urban informality

Roy does work in three areas: The analysis of urban poverty in the global South ; The investigation of new frontiers of capital accumulation, notably the conversion of economies of poverty into globally circulating capital; and The examination of new formations of global urbanism, notably bold urban planning experiments undertaken by nation-states in Asia. Roy engages with feminist and ethnographic methodologies and often draws upon post-colonial feminism for theoretical inspiration. In the field of urban studies , Roy is well known for advancing the theoretical concept of "urban informality" [1] and the call for "new geographies of theory" that are attentive to the urban condition of the global South. At Berkeley, Roy taught graduate and undergraduate students. In , she was awarded the Distinguished Teaching Award, the highest teaching honor UC Berkeley bestows on its faculty. In , Roy was the recipient of the Golden Apple Teaching award, the only teaching award given by the student body.

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Ananya Roy


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