ERIONOTA THRAX PDF

Top of page This species was described by Evans and separated from the superficially very similar Erionota thrax Linnaeus ; both are known as the banana skipper. There have been no subsequent name changes. In the applied entomology literature, E. Description Top of page Cock analysed the food plant records of E. Musaceae , although occasionally, perhaps under outbreak conditions, some other species of Zingiberales such as Strelitzia may be used. The early stages cannot be distinguished from those of E.

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Top of page Erionota thrax was first described by Linnaeus as early as However, as shown by Evans there are two very similar species with partly overlapping ranges involved, E. Externally, adults of the two species can be distinguished only by the straight outer margin and acute apex of the forewing in E. Piepers and Snellen and other authors have confused the two species, making it uncertain to which species their biological observations pertain.

In the Philippines, de Jong and Treadaway discovered and described yet another species, Erionota surprisa, very similar to and flying with the much rarer E. Mau et al. This is a different species that occurs in Africa and from Turkey to Malaysia. It is a very different and much smaller hesperiid species; the larvae live on various grasses and it is a minor pest of millet and other Poaceae. Description Descriptions of the early stages of E. Eggs The eggs are conspicuously yellow. They are laid singly on the undersides of leaves, but a number of eggs may be deposited on the same leaf.

Larva The larva has not been described in detail. It is pale green and clothed with short, silky hairs. The head is black, and heart-shaped in frontal view. The larva soon becomes covered with a white, waxy powder, a waste product of its metabolism. The full-grown larva reaches a length of about 6 cm. Pupa The slender pupa is yellow-brown and covered with the same waxy powder as the larva. It reaches a length of cm, and has a long proboscis that reaches to the tip of the abdomen and is free from where it leaves the wing sheaths.

Adults Adults are brown on the upper and under side. The wingspan is The apex of the forewing is acute and the outer margin straight slightly convex in the female. The forewing has three conspicuous, pale-yellow, semi-hyaline spots, in space 2, space 3 and cell.

The scales of these spots are perpendicular to the wing surface. The rectangular spot in space 2 is the largest. It is partly overlapped by the cell spot, which is also rectangular, but outwardly excavate rounded in the Moluccas. The spot in space 3 is more or less triangular and isolated.

The same description applies to Erionota torus, except for the more rounded apex and the more convex outer margin of the forewing in the latter. In the male genitalia, E. Moreover, the aedeagus is very much wider in E. Externally, Erionota acroleucus and E. The males of the first two species are further characterized by a well-defined, white apex to the forewing, on the upper side. The three species can easily be distinguished by the male genitalia.

The uncus of E. The cucullus of E. Distribution Top of page The most comprehensive information on the distribution of E. Evans recognized three subspecies: E.

De Jong and Treadaway provided more detailed information on the distribution in the Philippines, and showed that in northern Luzon there is a fourth subspecies, E. Wynter-Blyth gave the range of E. According to Smith , records from Nepal probably all relate to E.

Haribal listed E. The same holds for Pinratana with regard to Thailand; Lekagul et al. Motono and Negishi found E. The species is common on the plains in Peninsular Malaysia as is E. It is found practically everywhere in Indonesia where cultivated or wild Musa is grown Kalshoven, and is known from all of the major islands and many of the smaller islands Evans, ; and specimens held at the Natural History Museum, London, UK, and the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden, Netherlands.

Piepers and Snellen recorded it from Java from sea level to m, but as these authors confused E. Although widespread in Indonesia, it has not been found in the South Moluccas with the exception of Ambon, where it may be a relatively recent introduction specimen held in the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden, Netherlands , the Lesser Sunda Islands, east of Flores specimen held in the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden, Netherlands.

Although it has not been recorded from Irian Jaya, it must occur there as it now occurs throughout mainland Papua New Guinea as an introduced species. Geographical records outside this distribution area relate to introductions. The first recorded introduction was in into Guam, followed by Saipan in Waterhouse and Norris, The first specimen of Papua New Guinea was caught in Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden, Netherlands , but the species only became established in , and since it has spread throughout the mainland Sands and Sands, Ito and Nakamori mentioned the species as Pelopidas thrax from Okinawa, Japan, but this is a misidentification for E.

In , the species became established in Hawaii Nakao and Funasaki, ; Mau et al. It has been reported from Mauritius, where the species was stated to have become established as early as Monty and Ghauri, but this seems to be a misidentification for E. The pest is introduced through young plants carrying eggs or by fertilized females hiding between the fruits.

In the latter case, the crepuscular habit of E. Distribution Table Top of page The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status.

Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

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